While women are making strides toward gender equality in the US and across the world, it is well documented that women still earn less than men for the same work, even when their educational backgrounds are comparable. Non-Hispanic white women in the US earn 77 cents for every dollar that white males earn, African American women earn 64 cents for every dollar, and Hispanic women 55 cents for every dollar. This gap is not proving to narrow with time.
Not only do women make less than men in similar occupations, women are more often employed in low-income careers compared to men. Statistics show that women in the US tend to choose careers that are historically “female” – and coincidentally these positions tend to pay less too.
A recent New York Times article indicated that this past December all employment gains in the US went to women, however, all of those jobs were “concentrated in low-wage sectors”. This is due to various factors, but the following information may provide some insight.
An article published in the journal Organization Science explores whether women choose different careers than men and how their choices impact gender equality in the work force. The article suggests that differences in career choices for men and women can be “partly explained by women’s preferences for jobs with better anticipated work-life balance, lower identification with stereotypically masculine jobs, and lower expectations of job offer success in such stereotypically masculine jobs.”
It is a widely held belief that if women set higher expectations for their salaries or careers, the income gap between men and women would decrease.
So do we simply conclude that women are less driven than men? Is this what women want? OF COURSE NOT.
Although women have been making advances in male-dominated occupations, women still typically choose careers that are “female oriented” such as healthcare, business services, and education. Why? It is a matter of historical and deeply rooted ideas about gender roles that also sustain the income gap. Women’s career choices stem from what society tells women they can or cannot do. An article from the Guardian (discussing the job market in England, but is reminiscent of what is happening in the US) explains, “The labor market has become a much harsher place for young people over the past 20 years, especially for young women. Women (are) trapped in low wage positions because they are still being channeled down traditional paths.”
Further, research shows that women actually do set lower salary expectations than men. A fascinating article from Forbes helped me understand the situation clearly. A study of about 66,000 college undergraduates projecting their salary for their first full-time job found that women expected to earn $49,248 annually while men’s expected earnings were $56,947. These projections are not based on the fact that women think they should earn less, expect less for their work, or are less driven than men. The figures the students projected were actually very closely aligned with what they would earn upon entering the workforce. Both male and female projections came from informed research, through speaking with someone in their chosen field, or using online resources.
Although it is important to negotiate higher salaries, Meghan Casserly of Forbes says it is not a feasible option for individuals seeking entry-level work in the current economy. Young people entering the work force today do not have much flexibility to bargain for higher salaries. Women are actually making appropriate decisions to ensure attaining a position in their career of choice.
The income gap is not something that is true only when discussing women who work in lower paying positions. Casserly mentions that life is not “much sweeter at the highest of highs.” Casserly writes, “A recent Bloomberg study of the compensation of the best-paid female leaders in the United States indicates an average take-home salary of $5.3 million dollars—roughly 18% less than their male peers.”
Of course, there is nothing wrong with choosing a traditionally “female” profession, but we should be reminded that we do not need to be confined in those sectors and jobs.
Casserly suggests two solutions to remove the disparity:
1. Pass the Paycheck Fairness Act which would make it illegal for men and women who perform equal work to receive different pay.
2. Instill “salary transparency” starting at the top which would set a “trickle-down precedent” and eventually affect women at all levels.
Some organizations that work toward girls’ success in typically male-dominated fields include:
Check out their websites to find out how to show your support!