In recent years, it has become apparent that international cooperation is important in promoting inclusive and sustainable development, especially to achieve global development agendas. African countries recognize the importance of partnerships for enhancing and consolidating the growth of the continent.
Many African states have benefitted from the traditional North-South cooperation, through sharing experiences, technical assistance, as well as the cooperation of other emerging economies. It is along such lines that the Anti-FGM campaign has picked up much-necessary momentum after years of lip service.
The campaign against FGM has had a long history, but it has been confined to board rooms and workshops, with few targeted grassroots campaigns. For instance, as recently as 2010, Kenya did not have an official policy addressing FGM and relied upon Presidential decrees. However, with the Anti-FGM policy put in place, in 2011, there has been considerable investment of resources and strategies from the North.
The international immigration crisis brought FGM to the doorstep of the developed north. Waves of migrants from nations that practice FGM began arriving and settling, and brought their deep-rooted cultural practices – such as FGM – with them. While the developed north had been known to condemn the practice in principle, the changing dynamics required a more proactive approach, both at home and abroad.
It is in this context that a new impetus to fund anti-FGM work at the grassroots by organizations based in the north came about. Notably, in 2015, The Guardian Media UK launched the End FGM Guardian Global Media Campaign in Kenya, The Gambia and Nigeria. The Guardian pioneered identifying and training young activists in the use of new and traditional media to work towards ending FGM.
The use of media has been a powerful tool in influencing perceptions and educating people about the realities of FGM. The media has also broadened the platform, reach and visibility of anti-FGM efforts. The use of activists has built upon young people who are already playing leadership roles and have what it takes to be future opinion leaders in their respective communities.
Similarly, The Girl Generation, an African-led global movement aimed at ending FGM within a generation, focuses on building a critical mass for change which helps unlock regional, national and international commitments to increase resources that can sustain and scale up efforts to end the practice.
Other notable strategies include Alternative Rites of Passage (ARPs) spearheaded by AMREF Health, in Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia. ARPs allow a girl to safely transition to womanhood without undergoing the emotional and physical risk of FGM while preserving a community’s’ culture. ARPs has been adopted by the United Nations as a model of eradicating FGM.
In Djibouti, Mali, Guinea, Senegal, Somalia, The Gambia, and Mauritania, is Tostan – a human rights Community Empowerment Program that allows community members to draw their own conclusions about FGM and lead their own movements for change. The program also focuses on community public declarations which are critical in the process of abandoning the practice, eventually leading FGM to becoming a thing of the past.
Elsewhere, 28TooMany is consistently working on research around Africa where FGM is practiced (28 countries) and across the diaspora. They also advocate for the global eradication of FGM and work closely with other organizations in the violence against women sector. Research and data is a crucial element that guides Anti-FGM strategies and campaigns.
What these efforts have in common is support from the north, with campaigns being led by local activists, many of whom are beginning to gain attention for their efforts in eradicating FGM in their countries.
The North-South cooperation has resulted in accelerated efforts to end FGM – evident in the recent ban of FGM in countries like Nigeria and The Gambia. A drop in FGM overall in some countries, and public community declarations in others, are tangible results. Intangible results can be seen in increased reportage of FGM cases, a surge in involvement of young people and institutions in Anti-FGM Campaigns, increased awareness, the launch of regional campaigns such as the Saleema Initiative in Sudan, the Not in My Name campaign in Sierra Leone and the He for She campaign worldwide.