All Teachers Need Mandatory Training on FGM

Written by Katrina Lambert (18) and Caitlin Moore (18) – Youth For Change UK members

Ever felt like decision makers aren’t listening to young people? That our voices are ignored and belittled in society? We certainly do sometimes. And we’ve decided to make some noise about it.

We are members of Youth for Change, a global network of youth activists who aim to tackle gender-based violence.

The best way to create positive change is through young people working together to make a difference. We are the ones affected – we should be the ones influencing policy.

Over the last few years we have been tackling the issue of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). FGM is a form of violence against girls. It can result in a lifetime of pain, psychological problems and difficulty in childbirth.

Around 125 million girls have been cut worldwide. An estimated 137,000 girls and women live with FGM in the UK.

In 2017, our research found that 90% of young people surveyed said that learning about FGM as part of Relationship and Sex Education (RSE) would help to protect and empower them and their peers. This was the focus of our campaign to get FGM in the RSE curriculum.

Therefore, we were incredibly excited when it was announced that Relationship and Sex Education (RSE) would be compulsory in every school in England as of 2020. Education plays an absolutely crucial role in young people’s lives (as two school students, we can verify this 100%).

Having FGM taught in schools is our chance to take a step forward in ending this harmful practice.

At Youth for Change, when the Department for Education released the online curriculum consultations, we engaged with our networks and communities to strengthen the voice advocating for FGM to be included.

We fed this back to the Department for Education when a group of us met with senior civil servants last year. We also met with Carolyn Harris MP, Shadow Minister for Women and Equalities, to discuss the importance of empowering young people through educating them on FGM.

As a result, questions about FGM being a priority area of the new curriculum were raised in Parliamentary Questions, to the then Home Secretary, Amber Rudd MP.

In February 2019, it was celebrations all round. We heard that FGM was to be included as a topic in the curriculum. However, as tempting as it may be, we can’t stop now and pat ourselves on the back.

Yes, we have taken a monumental step in the direction towards eradicating FGM. However, in order to ensure that the new curriculum can appropriately educate and empower young people on the issue, teachers must feel equipped.

This is why Youth for Change is calling for mandatory training for all teachers on FGM.

Our research shows that 94% of young people feel school staff don’t know enough about FGM. If there is any chance of the the new curriculum guidance achieving its fullest positive impact, teachers must be trained.

When students are aware of the issue and feel confident that their teachers understand it, then they will naturally feel more protected and comfortable in opening up conversations. This is essential in increasing reporting and saving the lives of thousands of young women and girls across the UK.

Mandatory training for teachers will ensure that every pupil in the UK gets equal access to the FGM education they deserve, regardless of what part of the country they happen to be educated in.

The benefits of training teachers in FGM are not limited to students. It will also empower teachers to feel equipped to take on their role.

In fully understanding their legal responsibilities, including mandatory reporting, teachers will able to confidently safeguard their students and signpost the correct support. Training is absolutely essential. Without it, the huge changes to the curriculum will not be able to support and educate young people.

What can you do?

Get involved with us as we continue to press for standardised, mandatory training for teachers on FGM! Find us on twitter @YouthForChange. And while you’re here, support all of the other amazing activists in our network, such as IKWRO, who are calling for FGM to be tackled earlier on in education.

We’re not going to stop making noise. We need to ensure that the education young people receive reflects what they want and need to learn. We very much hope that the Government will listen to our calls to introduce mandatory training. Together, we can move even closer to eradicating FGM in the UK once and for all.

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Politics Affects our Health: the Case of Sudan

‘Social determinants of health’ are the circumstances and surroundings that influence an individual’s health outcomes.

Researchers have focused on social determinants of health for decades and there is now a general consensus that higher socioeconomic status predicts better odds of future health and well-being. While this notion is scientifically accepted, it prompts the question: what creates these social determinants of health? This has brought much needed attention to the ways in which politics affect health – both directly and indirectly.

‘Political determinants of health’ are the factors that shape the social determinants of health. This is a relatively new concept and is of particular significance for women. An example of the link between politics and health can be found in Sudan.

In Sudan, the political climate is shaped by religion and the constitution is based on teachings of Sharia Law. Currently, many communities face extreme financial strain as a result of failed past politics and/or war and insecurity. This has increased pre-existing and vast social inequities, including gaps in financial and educational opportunities.

The political situation in Sudan has had inevitable consequences for health.

Social disadvantage falls heavier on women. Until recently, girls have been denied the same education as their male counterparts. Lack of education leads to limited knowledge of health, which affects an individual’s ability to improve their own health outcomes. 

One example is the issue of sexual and reproductive health. Sexuality and sexual behaviour are sensitive topics rarely discussed in conservative, religious cultures like Sudan’s. Sexual and reproductive health and rights do not enjoy a high-priority status among political agendas, either, and there has been very little consideration of introducing sexual education into classrooms. However, many educators and health officials have started to support sex education in schools, resulting in increasing support by legislators.

Another example is the high prevalence of female genital mutilation (FGM) in Sudan, at a prevalence of approximately 89% countrywide. The harmful practice continues to affect many areas of the country, and although it is legally banned, it is well-known to continue with the open support of many religious leaders. This is a clear example of failed implementation of legislation that has allowed FGM to remain prevalent despite wide-spread efforts by campaigns and NGO peer-education programs.

Under Sudanese constitution, child marriage, forced marriage or marital rape are not against the law.

Much of the country’s legislation does not provide any protection for women’s rights. As a result, many Sudanese women fear persecution.

One case that struck the international community was that of Noura Hussein in 2018. The 19-year-old was sentenced to death for fatally stabbing her husband – who she had allegedly been forced to marry – after he attempted to rape her. In the eyes of the law, marital rape does not exist, and so Hussein had no claims to self-defence as she was viewed as a belonging of her husband. The ruling was thankfully overturned after increasing international pressure on the Sudanese government. Hussein received a reduced sentence of 5 years in prison. 

Historically, women in Sudan have been forced to be subordinate to men. Although this is changing and vast improvements have been made, drastic changes to the country’s politics and constitution are needed to ensure full protection of women’s rights – especially their rights to health and wellbeing. 

 

5 Activists Fighting to End Female Genital Mutilation

Today is International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation, and we’re celebrating the activists who’ve had huge impacts on the eradication of FGM across the globe. Here are 5 key figures changing the lives of women in their communities…

“FGM is not just being performed in Africa, the Middle East and Asia but… in Europe [too]”
-Ann-Marie Wilson

Dr Ann-Marie Wilson was determined that much more needed to be done to eradicate FGM, and so she founded 28 Too Many. The organisation is a UK based, anti-FGM charity working across 28 countries in Africa, but it also focuses on working with diaspora in the UK.

“We often associate female genital mutilation with the horrific physical trauma… But there is less awareness about the psychological trauma that can haunt a woman throughout her lifetime.”
-Leyla Hussein

Leyla Hussein is one of the world’s most active campaigners against FGM. An FGM survivor herself, Leyla uses her own experience to formulate social and political strategies for eradicating the practice. As a psychotherapist, one of her major points has been the need for greater psycho-social support for survivors.

“I might never be able to enjoy a sexual experience.”
-Mariya Karimjee

Mariya Karimjee bravely shared her story of FGM on a This American Life podcast. She brought the underreported issue of FGM in Pakistan into the public realm, and has been sharing her experience of sexual pleasure as a survivor. Her activism is important, as she broaches the taboo topics of sex and FGM in a frank and honest way, normalising the discussion.

“This is child abuse and they need to look at it as that. It is a child protection issue.”
-Hibo Wardere

Hibo Wardere is a Somali-born campaigner against FGM, and author of the informative biography Cut: One Woman’s Fight Against FGM in Britain Today. Through her frank account of her own experience of FGM, Hibo has emphasised the fear and control girls are put through at a young age in practicing communities.

“There is no authentic or relevant Islamic evidence allowing FGM in all its forms and the practice is harmful and violates freedom, privacy, health and dignity of the Muslim woman.”
-Sheikh Ibrahim Lethome

Sheikh Ibrahim Lethome has worked tirelessly to delink FGM from Islam. Dedicating a major part of his life to studying relevant scriptures, he has published a number of works which open religious discussions about FGM and provide strategies to organisations for delinking the practice from Islam.

There are many people who have been trailblazing the fight against FGM for years, and each have important messages about how we can end this violation of human rights. To learn more and join the conversation today, follow and use #EndFGM on social media.

The Real Price of FGM in Kenya

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a human rights violation, a form of torture and an extreme form of violence and discrimination against girls and women – there is no subtle way to describe it!

Sadly, according to World Health Organization (WHO), more than 200 million girls and women globally have undergone FGM. Worse still, if current trends continue, 15 million girls (between ages 15-19) are at risk of undergoing FGM by 2030. In my region of Kenya, there are numerous documented cases of girls dying every year due to complications arising from FGM, but substantial data is difficult to come by.

Contrary to popular belief that FGM is a ‘cultural issue’, in reality, the practice has dire socio-economic consequences and impacts on the health, education, livelihoods and general well-being of girls and women. In the course of my activism and journalism in Kenya, I have come face-to-face with the impact of FGM on girls and women among various communities that perpetuate the practice.

FGM is believed by some to ‘benefit’ girls and women by ensuring chastity and cleanliness as well as acting as a rite of passage into womanhood. In reality, it is a perpetuation of misogyny and a violent expression of the patriarchy and sexism that lead to the psychological and physical abuse of women.

Without exception, young girls and women carry the economic burden of FGM since the practice denies those affected an opportunity to access education. Lack of education, of course, then limits chances of being economically productive through formal employment. Moreover, lack of education limits the nature of livelihood activities individuals can partake in.

Another issue underpinning the continuation of FGM is the persistent equation of girls and women with commodities. For instance, among the Rendile, Pokot and Maasai communities in Kenya, it is common practice to trade off girls as dowry as way of replacing livestock lost during drought or through rustling. As a result, a girl’s education and future is sacrificed at the expense of her father’s quest for wealth.

By the same token, it is well known that circumcisers, often older ladies, have continued the practice not because of their ‘strong’ belief in the practice but purely as a means of making a living out of innocent girls.  For instance, last year a renowned but reformed ‘cutter’ confessed in an interview with me that she had made a great deal of money out of her business, which she’d practiced for 30 years. She boasted of having built a permanent house – one of the best in the village – with the money she’d made. Unfortunately, her wealth had been accumulated through cutting over 5000 girls, most of whom eventually would have dropped out of school and been married off at a young age.

The practice of FGM even impacts social institutions in practicing communities. Local level authorities charged with the responsibility of arresting FGM perpetrators are routinely bribed. One such revelation came from a Chief I spoke to, who confessed to having made “a few coins” out of the practice. Indeed, it emerged that it is common practice for cutters, parents and community elders to bribe chiefs and police to shield them, especially during the cutting ceremonies.

It has also been widely documented that many perpetrators walk out of cells scot-free for lack of sufficient evidence to support prosecution. In some instances I’ve heard about, politicians have been known to interfere with criminal cases by bribing officials who in turn release the perpetrators by instigating a low cash bail – after which most cases simply fade away.

Sounds like a scheme, right? But it remains the reality for too many women and girls in Kenya and around the world. Women and girls continue to pay the price of FGM. And the price remains way too high.

Girls’ Globe is publishing opinions and ideas on tackling gender-based violence from our global network of bloggers and organizations during each of the 16 Days of Activism. We’re also crowdfunding to be able to continue to raise the voices of girls and young women in 2018 – voices like Lorna’s. Donate today and help us to continue building a safer, more equal world.