Oxford’s Dictionary is Spreading Misogyny Online

A few months ago, in an exercise for an upcoming project, I looked up ‘woman synonyms’. The result was a display of patronising, misogynistic, sexist or offensive definitions of ‘woman’.

My first search was ‘woman synonyms’ on Google, and I found the following synonyms (amongst others): ‘filly’, ‘biddy’, ‘bird’, ‘bint’, ‘besom’, ‘frail’, ‘piece’, ‘bit’, ‘mare’, ‘baggage’, ‘bitch’, ‘maid’, ‘wench’, ‘petticoat’. Incredulous, I looked up ‘man synonyms’. Expectedly, I found the results to be quite different.


Curious to view how women were defined across the internet, I decided to explore other dictionaries – Cambridge, Oxford, Merriam Webster, and Collins. Unfortunately, misogyny and sexism could be found in all my searches. It was shocking to discover how biased the dictionaries are against women.


Collins + Merriam Webster +Cambridge Dictionary
Oxford Dictionary + Thesaurus


Personally, I found Oxford’s Dictionary and Thesaurus (via new website lexico.com) to be the most sexist and worrying case. The text of the dictionary and thesaurus seemed way too familiar and that’s when I realised they were the same synonyms and definitions I had seen on Google! So I hurried to Yahoo and Bing to search ‘woman definition’ and/or ‘woman synonyms’ and boom – there was Oxford’s definition, yet again.

Bing + Yahoo


Surprisingly, in Yahoo’s search results you can see ‘powered by Oxford Dictionaries’. Oxford’s licensing deals allow other sources to use its content (i.e. Yahoo, Google, and Bing), demonstrating how the misogynistic definition of ‘woman’ can become extremely widespread.

On Oxford’s website it gives more information about licensing of content to third parties, such as Google. This is dangerous, because it can influence algorithms and the way that women are spoken about online.

Here’s how Oxford University Press portrays women:

A woman is subordinate to a man. Example: ‘male fisherfolk who take their catch home for the little woman to gut’, ‘one of his sophisticated London women’.

A woman is a sex object. Example: ‘If that does not work, they can become women of the streets’, ‘Ms September will embody the professional, intelligent yet sexy career woman’.

A woman is an irritation to men. Example: ‘I told you to be home when I get home, little woman.’

‘Woman’ is not equal to ‘man’. The definition of ‘man’ is much more exhaustive than that of ‘woman’. Example: Oxford Dictionary’s definition for ‘man’ includes 25 example phrases’ , ‘woman’ includes only 5 example phrases.

It is okay to denigrate women. The fact that Oxford Dictionaries are licensing out this type of content is not only an endorsement of misogyny but also a magnifier of it.

In their defence, Oxford University Press say Oxford’s dictionaries “give a window on to how language is used today.” Sure, sexist language has been used throughout history and is still used today. History is important and shouldn’t be washed out of the dictionary, but isn’t it time to be courageous enough to ask ourselves some hard questions?

I, together with the Fawcett Society East London, believe it is not okay for an institution like the Oxford University Press to portray women this way. We believe the dictionary should immediately stop discriminating against women. That is why we launched a petition.

The petition asks Oxford University Press to…

  1. Eliminate all phrases and definitions that discriminate against and patronise women and/or connote men’s ownership of women
  2. Enlarge the definition of ‘woman’ and equal it to the definition of ‘man’
  3. Include examples representative of minorities, for example, a transgender woman, a lesbian woman, etc.

Can you help us?

  1. Fill their inboxes: contact Oxford Dictionary here demanding inclusive and non-sexist definitions
  2. Sign the petition: Change Oxford Dictionary’s Sexist Definition of ‘Woman’;
  3. Send the campaign to your friends and connections
  4. Share the campaign on social media using #IAmNotABitch and/or #SexistDictionary
  5. Reach out to influencers: are you (or do you know) an Oxford University alumnus/ professional, or an influencer in the field? Ask them to email in an official capacity

Together, I am positive we can succeed in removing the offensive and damaging definition of women from the dictionary. Thank you in advance!

It’s Time to Confront Sexism in Medicine

I was told often at school that I was “very good at maths…for a girl.”

It’s been a long time since then. I believe that gender stereotypes in science and maths are a little less rife today. We cannot afford to become complacent though, as unconscious biases still exist.

Now, in my work as a doctor, antiquated comments crop up regularly.  Patients will mistake female doctors, residents and students for nurses. This happens regardless of how a female doctor introduces herself. The idea that a woman could only possibly be a nurse is clear evidence of the sexism that pervades society.

In spite of the steadily increasing proportion of women in medicine, the culture of medicine has not caught up. It’s well-documented that women are vastly underrepresented in leadership positions, such as full professors and department heads.

Stereotyping also exists within specialty programs. Many assume that the nature of the work demands detachment from emotions and an ability to withstand long hours and grueling procedures. To be tough, resilient and to soldier on have traditionally been thought of as male traits.

Even though the number of women taking up surgery has significantly risen in recent years, surgery is still very much a male-dominated field.

Sexism in medicine is deeply ingrained.

It is difficult for most young doctors to gain visibility and recognition. The situation is even more complex if you’re a young woman. Misogynist jokes and remarks about physical appearance or potential are obstacles that many have to deal with.

One challenge I have frequently faced is assumed incompetence. As a woman, I have had to fight for people to take me seriously. I hear doubts like ‘Can she provide medical care or take critical decisions when required?’ Often, a patient asks to see ‘the real doctor’. Translation? The male doctor.

There is no easy fix. On one side, you should not let any of the gender stereotypes thrown at you affect you. But neither can you ignore the bias.

The #MeToo movement has shined a light on the many places in our society where insidious or obvious sexism have long gone unremarked.

Medicine is no exception. There have been moments when I have been interrupted by an irrelevant comment and I have had to listen to sexist jokes. I have had to work hard to be heard and recognized. I’ve had to go the extra mile to earn the trust of patients, and even to identify with the scientific community.

I am learning that the most important thing is never to lose confidence. I try to stay focused on what’s important: doing great medicine.

What the medical profession needs is a drastic culture shift.

Sexist comments and inappropriate behavior in the medical field are evidence of a much larger problem. They show the insidious misogyny in our culture.

Doctors do not exist in a bubble. We are, to a large extent, products of our society. This includes people who make sexist jokes or commit sexual harassment. It also includes people who laugh along or accept sexism as normal. A shift this great requires courage and concerted efforts.

As one of the underrepresented populations in STEM, I believe I am making a difference simply by existing. I believe that it is really important to #balanceforbetter. We must put forward diverse, inclusive visions of the kind of future we would like medicine to create.

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7 Women Breaking Stereotypes in Pakistan

Pakistan remains one of the most male-dominated societies in the world, and women still tend to be portrayed or stigmatised as subordinates. In the patriarchal culture of Pakistan, women are often limited to doing domestic work and forced to hide the talents and skills they possess.

Recently, however, more and more women have been breaking stigma and stereotypes by doing and achieving things traditionally seen as being ‘only for men’.

Here are 7 Pakistani women breaking stereotypes like they should be broken! 

Namira Salim

Namira Salim is the first Pakistani woman to reach the North and South Poles and, as a Founder Astronaut for Virgin Galactic, she’s the first future Space Tourist from South Asia to travel into space. Salim started her own initiative, SpaceTrust, which promotes Space as the New Frontier for Peace via novel peace theme initiatives to inspire change, encourage dialogue and enrich education.

Samina Baig 

Samina Baig is the first Pakistani woman to climb Mount Everest and the Seven Summits. She was awarded the Pride of Performance by the government of Pakistan, and runs initiatives that encourage women to take part in outdoor activities. Last year, Baig was appointed as the National Goodwill Ambassador for Pakistan by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Ayesha Farooq

“Instead of looking up to role models, become one yourself”Ayesha Farooq. Farooq is the first female to become a fighter pilot in the Pakistani Air Force. She’s also made history as the first woman to be assigned to one of Pakistan’s front-line dogfighting squadrons. 

Sana Mir

Sana Mir is the former Captain of the Pakistan national women’s cricket team. She was first female Pakistani cricketer to rank number one in the International Cricket Council bowler rankings, and led Pakistan to two gold medals in Asian Games in 2010 and 2014. Mir has been vocal in recent years when speaking out against body-shaming in sports advertising.

Zenith Irfan

Zenith Irfan is the first female motorcyclist to ride across Pakistan and an all-round bad-ass. After her father’s early death, Irfan decided to fulfil his dream to tour the world on a motorbike. The journey was a huge step in a country where it can be taboo for women to venture out alone, nevermind on a motorbike, and CNN have called her “Pakistan’s boundary-breaking motorcycle girl”. 

Tahira Safdar

Justice Tahira Safdar is the first woman chief justice of any court in the history of Pakistan, currently serving as the Chief Justice of Balochistan High Court (Balochistan is Pakistan’s largest province). In a patriarchal society like Pakistan, where the subject of law and the profession of judiciary are preserved for men, Tahira Safdar has set one of the finest and most inspiring examples for women in Pakistan.

Uzma Nawaz

Did you just say that car repairing can only be done by men? Well, Uzma Nawaz, the first female car mechanic in Pakistan, is here to prove you wrong.

These are just some of the women in Pakistan who have broken through in a society that’s still very much dominated by men. I find each of these women incredibly inspiring, and hope that they can be a source of inspiration for other women out there too. What are you waiting for?!

The Women I am Not

After spending a weekend in bed with flu and catching up on TV, I have an aching sensation (which incidentally doesn’t come from my infected sinuses).

Sex on screen continues to be misogynistic, violent and completely unrealistic.

As young girls we are told to be good. While the definition of good varies from society to society, there seem to be some common traits: if you were born a girl, you should wait for the right man, dress appropriately, not be easy.

But when it comes to sex, mainstream TV teaches us the exact opposite: we should always be ready, willing and, of course, we should never say no. On TV, sex is both the preferred weapon and ultimate punishment, and there seems to be very little in between.

Mainstream TV-makers tend to portray women who have sex in three ways: (1) as manipulators, using sex to advance their agenda; (2) as props, used by the male characters to express their masculinity or to say an intense goodbye before taking off to war (or some other kind of heroic activity); and (3) as a victim of violence.

Needless to say, in all these scenarios, the women involved are beautiful, slim and perfectly groomed – including, to my horror, the penniless sex workers in 19th century Paris.

Women are not the only ones whose sexual lives are gravely oversimplified on screen.

The unfair representations of masculinity – including sexual performance, needs and emotions – are undoubtedly hurting those who do not see themselves as ever-eager, macho sex machines who fear even the idea of monogamy. Not to mention other groups, such as the trans* community or people with disabilities, whose sexual lives are often altogether omitted in popular culture.

It is well established that the representation of social relations is a powerful tool in media, which can have a strong impact on normalisation of behaviour and norms. For instance, it has been argued that the increased presence of LGBTQ+ characters on TV is positively influencing the coming-out and self-realisation in the community.

Other studies show less positively, that media portrayals of rom-com relationships can normalise stalking. So, in absence of other portrayals of sexual encounters, are we doomed to learn our sexuality from what we see on TV screens?

I know, in theory, that the characters and scenes we see in films, ads or TV series are there only for entertainment and not to be taken too seriously. But in practice, I often feel conflicted.

I am angry to see that unrealistic stereotypes about such an important part of human lives continue to be reproduced on TV, and I refuse to replicate them in my own relationships. But, years of media influence had an impact on my idea of what constitutes perfect sex, and I often find it difficult to completely reject the influence of over-sexualised images of women that we all know so well from pop-culture.

I am neither the good girl  society wanted me to grow into, nor the women I see on TV. And I’m trying to find my way to be okay with that.

There is little we can do about the decades of unrealistic and misogynistic sex on TV reels, which has undoubtedly influenced generations of viewers. But we can inspire the future. Let’s talk about sex. Let’s talk about it openly, without fear or shame. Let’s talk about our contradictions, misunderstandings and repressed needs. Let’s laugh together at the endless imagination of TV makers coming up with ever-new ideas on how to reproduce old stereotypes.

Sex is a spectrum, full shades, and we should all be encouraged to find our own way in navigating our own sexuality. After all, reality is much more colourful than TV.

Society Teaches Women not to be Competitive

In my society, I believe that men have a tendency to feel threatened by the competitiveness of women. This is mainly because in Zimbabwe, men are traditionally regarded as the head of the family. Boys are awarded better education opportunities than girls are as a way to expand their horizons and increase their ability to take care of their own families in future. Tradition stipulates that girls are supposed to get married at a certain age, and therefore much time is spent grooming them to become ‘better’ wives – which in reality means more submissive wives. Of course, this means that they won’t be able to discover the endless possibilities that the world has to offer.

The tendency for some men to feel threatened by the competitiveness of women is supported by Nigerian novelist Chimamanda Ngozie Adichie. In her essay ‘We Should All Be Feminists‘, she talks about “the insecurity triggered by how boys are brought up, how their sense of self-worth is diminished if they are not ‘naturally’ in charge as men”.

I have used Adichie’s words to help me think about how Zimbabwean society in particular teaches women not to be competitive.

Traditionally, my society teaches females from a tender age that if they want to get married, they should be loyal and they should not try to exercise power because men hate competition – especially from their wives. This generalization means that women end up sacrificing a lot for fear of rejection or punishment. Socialization plays a key role in determining the competitiveness of women and girls, and so it’s important to empower girls with knowledge in the early stages of their lives through awareness campaigns and education, so that they are not limited by outdated social beliefs in their futures.

Religion also plays a role in sabotaging women’s efforts to empower themselves. Christianity teaches women to learn things quietly, never to argue and to be submissive. In the Christian Bible, Timothy 2:11-12, it says, “Let a woman learn quietly with all submissiveness. I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man, rather, she is to remain quiet”.

The tradition amongst Zezuru/Shona people in Zimbabwe is that women and girls must kneel down when greeting or serving food to their husbands or elders as a sign of showing respect. This tradition glorifies men and renders women and girls inferior and weak. I believe that religion and tradition are being used by society as an opium to make women docile  and less competitive. Each time a woman wants to be more assertive, she is reminded that by doing so she’ll be breaking both religious and traditional laws.

To illustrate further, lineage descends through the males and not the females, which is why families rejoice more upon the birth of a male child compared to a female. A male child guarantees the continuity of the lineage, whereas girls move to the household of their husbands when they marry and change their surnames. This contributes to stifling female ambition as some husbands and in-laws won’t allow a woman to continue with her career after marriage, regardless of how educated or driven she is.

From my perspective as a young woman here in Zimbabwe, it’s clear to me that our societal traditions and norms play such a crucial role in making women and girls less competitive and less ambitious than they might otherwise be. Society must therefore be the primary agent of change by enabling and encouraging girls and women to be more independent. Boys and girls are all born competitive, but social constructs favor men over women and make us believe that these are ‘natural’ differences between males and females.

On the Importance of Mental Health to Women’s Health

Until recently, the main images that would show up in my head when I thought of ‘women’s health’ would be gynaecological exams, menstrual cramps and pregnancy. I didn’t think, for example, of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) or of postpartum depression. Mental health wasn’t something I automatically associated with women’s health – that is, until I began to struggle with debilitating mental health issues myself. Those issues negatively affected my overall wellbeing and disrupted my whole life.

Mental health issues occur in both sexes, but in my experience as a woman with mental health issues, and reading stories of other women like me, I believe that gender plays a major role in the way mental health issues are experienced by individuals. Stigma around mental health is, unfortunately, still rampant among both men and women, and social constructs of men being physically and mentally ‘stronger’ than women – the ‘fragile sex’ – can deeply hurt those of all genders. However, one thing I’ve noticed is that for women in particular, these social constructs can put their experiences at risk of being belittled as simply a “woman’s issue” instead of a legitimate health issue – an obstacle I’ve come up against myself time and time again. 

Many symptoms of anxiety and depression throughout my life have been ‘blamed’ on my sex: my short temper and irritability as a teenager – common symptoms of depression among teens – were “just PMS”, and my depressive moods were “just hormones”. I kept silent about the anxiety I’d been dealing with for over 16 years for fear of being seen as “weak” (weaker than already being a woman, that is) or as a “drama queen”.

Women who struggle with PMDD, for example, can suffer for years without having their disorder diagnosed and their condition taken seriously as something more than ‘just’ pre-menstrual syndrome. Women who suffer with addictive disorders also struggle as they are less likely than men to seek help for alcohol dependence.

Other facts confirm just how much mental health can affect women’s overall health, such as the fact that suicide is the second-leading cause of death among teenage girls worldwide, and that women are more at risk of developing anxiety and depressive disorders than men. And although biology (what psychology refers to as “nature”) may have something to do with women’s predisposition to mental health issues, the environment women are raised and live in (“nurture”) can also play an important role. Environmental triggers range from a constant fear of falling victim to sexual harassment and assault to the negative impacts of social media on girls’ and women’s views of their bodies and their sexuality.

Despite having struggled with mental health issues at some level since childhood, it has only been in the last year that I began to see and validate those issues as serious and deserving of help. In therapy, I have been working through dealing with long-held feelings of guilt I have associated with my anxiety and depression. One of the reasons for this, I believe, is that growing up I wanted to overcompensate for being ‘fragile’: I wanted to be seen and treated as ‘strong’ and to be respected by others just as my male counterparts were. Perhaps I believed that admitting, especially publicly, that I struggled with anxiety and depression would give others even more ammunition to see me and treat me as fragile and less-than. Today, I’m in the process of accepting my mental health issues – I take medication, go to therapy, and have seen doctors and psychiatrists.

For the first time in my life, I’m beginning to see these issues not as weaknesses, but as the medical conditions they really are. I’m beginning to see that if anything, dealing with them for most of my life has made me a stronger, not weaker, woman.

Mental health should become as common as pregnancy and menstrual cramps in conversations about women’s health – there can be no women’s health without mental health. In these conversation, though, it’s important to acknowledge that although women can have a greater biological predisposition to mental health issues, this fact says absolutely nothing about the character and the strength of women. Our biology can contribute to the high incidence of anxiety and depression among our sex, but by no means does it limit our capabilities or our right to have our health issues taken seriously by medical professionals and the people in our lives.